Caries is a dental disease characterized by the gradual destruction of tooth tissues.
If caries is not treated, the disease can cause serious complications. None of the stages of caries can be cured independently, if the tooth has begun to collapse, this process cannot be stopped without the help of a specialist.
Carious disease does not occur suddenly, it takes time and favorable factors to develop even initial caries, since carious disease occurs due to a group of factors, not one cause. The stages of caries are characterized by the depth of penetration into the tooth tissue and the degree of destruction.
Caries, in the absence of treatment, is an irreversible process that can lead to the development of complications, tooth loss, the development of caries on neighboring teeth.
Symptoms of caries development
Caries has several bright manifestations. In the initial stages of the disease, the symptoms are almost invisible, they do not bother the patient and do not cause discomfort. Over time over time and the development of the disease, the manifestations worsen, the intensity of symptoms increases, additional external and internal signs appear, noticeable to the patient and the people around him.
The change in the color of the tooth indicates the beginning of the pathological process. Caries in its initial form is characterized by almost imperceptible changes in the structure of the tooth surface – the appearance of lines, grooves, irregularities, roughness, as well as the appearance of white, yellowish or dark spots on the tooth enamel.
A change in the color of dental tissues is a sign of enamel demineralization, that is, its gradual destruction, if the formed spots have a brown or black color – the process of demineralization has switched to dentin.
Caries is a dental disease
Formation of cavities
The formation of cavities or as we call holes in the dental tissue is the main sign of caries. At the initial stages of the disease formation, the cavities are hardly noticeable and cause almost no inconvenience. With progressiro cavities of the cavity are easily felt by the tongue and change color. Also, the cavities formed are sensitive to temperature changes. In some cases, at this stage of the disease, patients are often worried about aching toothache.
Defeat of dentin
If you continue to ignore the presence of cavities and discoloration, caries moves to the next stage of development — dentin affects. This symptom cannot be detected independently. The process of damage and softening of dentin can be tracked only during dental probing. The study shows a change in the structure of the tooth surface, the presence of irregularities and roughness, softening of the dentin. It is also important that in case of carious disease, diagnostic probing is painful for the patient.
Increased sensitivity of teeth
One of the most striking manifestations of caries is an increase in the sensitivity of teeth to temperature and taste of food. Damage to the tooth enamel causes a sharp reaction to cold, hot food and drinks, and is also expressed by acute pain when eating sweet foods. The severity of the symptom varies, depending on the level of damage to the tooth enamel and the degree of development of carious disease.
Sometimes the sensitivity of the teeth is manifested not only during meals, but also changes in ambient temperature. With progressive caries, the affected tooth may react with soreness to the transition from a warm room to the street and back.
Uncomfortable sensations during eating
In addition to the increased sensitivity of teeth to the temperature of food, with caries, the process of chewing food itself causes discomfort or painful sensations. The patient gets the impression that the tooth is pierced with pain to the root, the pain can be described as sharp, sharp, strong, even unbearable. However, when the irritant disappears, it passes quite quickly on its own.
The development of caries can cause self-emerging toothache of various types (from mild aching to severe acute) for no apparent reason. Painful sensations occur suddenly, at any time of the day, regardless of food intake and activity. Toothache in this case is easily relieved by an analgesic or after a while passes on its own.
Bad breath is a constant companion of patients suffering from carious disease. The nature and intensity of the smell can be different and completely depend on the number and degree of dental caries disease. It is noteworthy that in the vast majority of cases, the patient himself does not feel an unpleasant smell.
Caries is a dental disease
Stages of caries
Like any disease, caries develops gradually, manifesting itself with new symptoms in the process of progression. The treatment of caries depends on the degree of complexity of the disease, that is, the depth of penetration of caries into the dental tissue. Below are brief descriptions of each stage of the disease with a description of its characteristic symptoms.
The initial stage of carious disease in the form of a light or dark spot is considered the easiest to treat, since it does not require significant dental interventions and is most often treated with several procedures to restore tooth enamel. In some cases, it is difficult to identify caries independently at the spot stage due to the peculiarities of the location of the tooth
Superficial caries destroys the tooth enamel and affects the upper layer of dentin. The structure of the tooth surface changes – the damaged area of the dental tissue becomes uneven, rough, sometimes grooves or lines appear on it. At this stage, the damaged tooth
Median caries is characterized by damage to the deeper layers of dentin. Caries at this stage causes increased sensitivity of the teeth, sharp pains during meals, as well as for no apparent reason.
Deep caries is a complex form of the disease, characterized by a tendency to rapid progression and the development of complications. The defeat of the deep layers of dental tissue most often contributes to the transition of carious disease to the pulp of the tooth.